Fundamentals of Computer Network Security


computer network security covers policies and procedures that administrators monitor and prevent any unauthorized access, alteration, or misuse of the available resources. It includes access authorization data in the system, controlled by the network administrator.

Administrator provides passwords for users to access programs and data. It includes a variety of settings such as public and private networks. It can be private ie within the organization, or it could be opened for public access.

computer network security must take all aspects of the network, from desktop to other peripherals. The multilayered and multifaceted approach to network security for companies or organizations do excellent protection against external threats and internal threats as well.

For a small network or a single computer system, the way along with built-in firewall is enough. On the other hand, a large network of the most appropriate option is a dedicated firewall within the network perimeter. There are many good dedicated firewall program that can allow for secure VPN connection. Important features dedicated firewalls are inspection, blocking and reporting malicious network.

One of the best addition to dedicated firewall content filtering devices. Such devices are generally useful to observe by filtration, adjustment and reporting all web traffic related. Content filters are placed between the internal switch and firewall or router. Outbound and inbound traffic on the Internet to go through such filters. They are usually referred to as bridging mode.

effective control is extremely important for computer network security. It helps in competent management of the network, where the activities of you as soon as diverse servers can be closely monitored and reported.

In addition, the servers and desktops must have anti-spyware and antivirus protection. Today, a myriad of threat protection software for enterprise levels are available on the market. The most suitable and ideal threat protection application must be cost effective, and it should provide daily updates of virus definitions. In addition, it should have centralized reporting and management system and effective protection for runtime security.

Another aspect of network security is assigning permissions to various users in the system. For example, managers might want to assess the system subordinates or team. They will be provided with limited rights admin to address their group. They might not necessarily give privilege for the entire network. You may also block users from installing software from the workstation. Similarly, you can also prevent them from accessing the system via portable storage devices. Basically, all the network infrastructure needs to be mapped clearly.

Finally, security measures also very important for the overall security of the computer network elements. To achieve this, the servers will be kept secure server room with regulated access. It is also better to check the safety of the backup media, whether it is on-site or on-site. Remember that critical business information can not in the wrong hands, and therefore it is very important to ensure your network, in order to sail towards your goals.


Understanding Computer Networks


When most people think of computer networks, they think of large companies. Many people have home networking systems to the common connection, share files and even shared printing capabilities. The process of sharing resources and data between more than one computer is called computer networks. When you connect computers together they are able to not only share the Internet connection, printer, fax and other things but are also able to share files, photos, songs and other data stored on the hard drive.

Networking Explained

The network can be divided into a local or small local area network such as LAN network where computers are shared within the office or home space, MAN where two or more sites are connected via WAN area and where the network can be created to connect to a home or office from anywhere in the country.

WAN is the most common use for the connection, it allows the network to connect millions of computers across the globe. WAN network is the largest network of the world and through the connection if the router and running the right software you can be connected to any point from just about anywhere in the world.

Computer networks can be wired or wireless, but there are not many people who use a wired shape these days. Depending on the set up you need, how you need to access the main computer and how many you have to connect will determine which network you need to create.

There are two main ways to connect computers, a client-server system and through peer-2-peer servers. The client-server networks, major computer or computers that work as a server for the network. The data, files, images, docs and other information stored on these servers are then accessed from a variety of computers that are online. Other computers in the network are called clients and they are connected to the server to get some or all of the information.

Peer-2-peer networks allow each computer to select what information will be shared. There is no main server where it is all kept each hard drive is open to the internet and each computer on the network will be given appropriate access to the hard drives of each system. Most home users have a peer-2-peer networking organization where they can pick and choose what information is needed or wanted from each system at home online. Most companies using client-server networks with different topologies or structures or design within their organization.

The common language and communication between the computer network known as protocols. Most used and protocols are TCP / IP where it works with some books and not just one protocol. The TCP / IP protocol can be used and will work with either wired or wireless connectivity and can be used through a client-server or peer-2-peer network.

to set up a Home Network

There are some great programs out there that will walk you through setting up a home network in no time. You do not have to be a network engineer and it takes a little knowledge of how the internet really works. You basically just the systems you want to connect or join together in networks, internet connection and the ability to follow simple instructions. If you are setting up a wireless Internet connection you do not have to worry about running cables from one computer to another and the only thing that will do is a few simple changes to the network part of each computer. You can create a secure connection is protected with a password to ensure that you are not connected to the outside who want to snoop through shared files. You get the ability of each system to choose what you want to share and what you do not. You can create a folder for the network and put it on a virtual drive, so no one can enter the virtual computer hard drive, just register and what is stored on it. The process for computer networks is simple and easy to do and can do multiple home computers run a lot smoother.


The Importance Of Network Design


Network design is more than just an act of hooking up the wires of the network and adjust some settings on your server. It includes tailor network protocols and software for your needs, computers and staff.

With expert network design to be easy to use, easy to add, versatile networking solution. Do not fall behind on the efficiency of the network is clumsy or dated

What does the Expert Network Design entail

Stage I:.? Evaluation & Assessment

At the first level, network specialists assess your business needs including future growth.

Then, if appropriate, they assess the present and return the equipment.

Experts will develop a plan to integrate all computer and a piece of software already used by your company

Stage II :. Planning & Design

At this stage, the network team and business’ executive team coordinates to plan and set a new network or network upgrade

The network put in place will meet business requirements and be flexible enough to grow with it

Stage III: Implementation ..

For practical implementation of network design Maryland organizations need seamless integration.

They can not afford for network implementation to interfere with their business.

Professional Network teams put a plan in place to begin and complete implementation of your business’ weighed classes, such as in the evening or on the weekend.

Security Services

Security threats are a decisive factor for the modern business.

One of the great problems facing the company is to ensure network they initially poorly designed and implemented. In other words, you would not try to catch a boat with holes.

But this is exactly what you expect from your business.

The planning and implementation of security protocols and solutions are primarily part of the network design in Maryland.

Companies can not afford to operate their business networks exposed to a variety of threats.

Back-up Solutions

Even today the smallest of businesses require redundancy systems in place to back-up and protect their information and their customers.

The company will often bridge the data system to the network un optimized and insecure way.

When the network experts design and implement a system, integrating the back-up solutions in the design phase.

business will be ready for back-up solutions they do not yet know they need.


Networking Securities


Computer security are the main guidelines and rules for access networks. They lay out some basic concepts to ensure your computer. Computer network security is a complex area and is taken up by experts with years of on-the-job experience.

As more people turn to computers to simplify day-to-day activities and jobs, the need for general users to understand the concepts of network security has become important. One should know the risks of using a computer without security, and learn how to deal with them successfully both at home and at work

There are two popular types of network security system :. Transport security and traffic regulation system. When both these unite you can be sure the supply critical information to the right person without any network pilferage problem. The handset should also ensure that the information received must be carefully prepared with a computer that is loaded and secured with the latest protection software.

The simplest form of safety online is to keep a close watch on the type of data packets moving between networks. If infected packet is not received, the host may have nothing to worry about. Traffic regulation system serve as a protective screen between the receiver and remote locations. These tools usually keeps three major areas of network :. Routers, firewalls and hosts

Three ‘guards’ performing similar services at various points in the system, it is difficult to draw a distinction line between them. The truth is that there are no foolproof systems that offer guaranteed secure system for data transfer in the public network. With the increasing use of the internet, network security is fast becoming critical for safe use of the systems and the network security is all set to be an important part of the regular use of our computer.


How to set up a small network?


In a small office, set up the network will be the best way that you can share information and resources between peoples. It also makes the process of communication cost effective and makes the best use of resources.

Before setting up a small network, you need to define the settings, which can be a peer-to-peer or client server. In a peer network, all systems share the same responsibility for data processing. Peer-to-peer networks are best for homes, small businesses and schools, although you can find peer networks that make use of Internet resources and are scattered geographically. In order to put a peer-to-peer network, it is necessary to have a way and Ethernet cables can be connected way modem and router to all systems that are to be part of the network. Once you have the basic equipment ready to set up a peer-to-peer network, look in the Network Setup Wizard to complete the procedure interface which is needed in the software to fully implement the network settings.

In client- server network, one system acts as a server and it has a high-power processors, large memory and disk drive fro purpose of handling client request and resource requirements. This in this type of network organization one system is responsible for processing claims “client” systems that are connected to it. This network setup is ideal for large companies, but it can also carry me in the small and medium office scale.

If you are going to install a client-server configuration, what is required is the only system that can act as a server. The system will have a powerful operating system (better to install Linux) and all necessary system resources so that it can handle all the processing requirements that must be done by the server. This server system must be configured to accept all clients that are connected to it. Once this is done, the network is established.


Computer Network Defense (CND) and Intelligence Community – A greater security


There are three industries Federal government are deeply Computer Network Defense and the intelligence community adds additional security because classified nature of community activities.

Therefore, contractors that provide Computer Network Defense (CND) services are held to even higher standards than the usual high requirements of vendors for Cyber ​​Security projects.

The concept of network defense features an extensive menu of services that provide infrastructure against cyber attacks from domestic and foreign sources. . While each agency has specific Cyber ​​Security needs and protection of classified information and information, general roadmap can be developed and used as a template for individual users

general objectives

General contractors that perform computer Defense Services are tasked to meet four objectives.

· Recommend architecture, software and hardware

· Implementation of the government approved solution

· Performing operations and maintenance of the CND program

· insuring the safety requirements for classified material are met (a higher safety requirement)

The contractor is also required to make regular formal reports and / or briefings detailing the position and performance of the various CND functional. area

Specific CND duties include, but are not limited to:


Deployment requires the contractor to develop all hardware and software required to state of the art Cyber ​​Security Defensive network that will improve defenses, ensure that the systems operate properly and monitor the day-to-day. It is important that all deployment effort coordinates with the agency security office to ensure the protection of classified information is not compromised. Deployment usually includes:

· Deploy, maintain, and monitor and tighten the perimeter defense organization on all classified and unclassified networks

· Deploy, operate, maintain, monitor and harden agency intrusion detection capability on all classified and unclassified networks

· Operating income, maintain, monitor and tighten the Domain Name Servers organization (DNS) on all classified and unclassified networks

Manage and support

Additional support is often needs in the form of identification of new products / technologies that enhance network security. Since Cyber ​​Security is in rapid development phase, new products and technologies are constantly emerging. Some of this technology is good and some not helpful. Eligible decisions need to select the best suitable technology

Examples of further assistance includes :.

· Work closely with engineering and installation activities and configuration management CND devices on the network organization

· Performing software and hardware vulnerability scanning on all classified and unclassified networks and systems

· Managing and monitoring the enterprise anti-virus program

· Provide assistance and guidance in the development of safety systems and network plans

· Managing and monitoring systems and network audit log reviews for all networks and systems

Testing and Reporting

Continuous testing of the system is the best way to identify and prevent future cyber attacks regularly. Based on tests, decisions can be made to improve the performance of the Cyber ​​Security network. Included in this process are the following steps:

· Identifying anomalous activity audit log immediately to the government manager

· Performing network and system security compliance testing

· Reporting noncompliance with system and network security plans immediately to the government manager

· Implementation of software, hardware and settings Vulnerability scanning of all agency systems and networks

· Work closely with the security office of the Agency in the development, implementation and management of security program of the Agency

· Director, and monitor removable media access control program on all agency systems and networks

Compliance and necessary support

The critical nature of Computer Network Defense means that standards and regulations shall meet and satisfy the need to ensure the success of the project. This includes:

· Support for Information Assurance Vulnerability Alert (IAVA) and information Condition applications; develop and maintain information systems security officer professional development organization

· Reviewing updated developments on all the relevant rules to ensure that the network is in line

· Providing as needed incident response support, hacker attacks, cyber-terrorism attacks, viruses, worms, Trojan horse and other incidents of malicious code

· Develop, install, manage and maintain the PKI infrastructure on all agency networks and systems

and technical representation

In order to establish a plan to future users can comply with and benefit from, complete and accurate documentation is required. In addition, according to the Intelligence Community Standard Operating Requirements, particularly as regards the security of classified information is necessary. This process includes:

· Documentation practices, policies, standards, training, procedures and configuration management processes

· Representatives of agency meetings, conferences and seminars as directed by the Government

· Responding to agency, DoD requirements, and Intelligence Community as directed by the Government

· Providing further technical assistance other factors / clients of Mission Assurance as required

Bring viable and compliant Computer Network Defense is a major undertaking and requires skill and effort. This is particularly true when dealing with institutions Intelligence Community and deal with classified information. This requires experience professional engineers with the requisite security clearance in addition to CND required certifications.


Computer Networking – Increased Gaming Experience


There was a time when people would rave about the 2-D arcade games like Pac Man, Pong and Space Invaders. Since then, the gaming industry has changed in moneymaking behemoth, and has linked up with other industries as well as music, merchandise, and advertising. Video games nowadays come in different forms and types, and one of the most exciting types of gaming is through computer networks.

Playing with LAN

gamers of all ages have enjoyed video games through the magic of a local area network. This connects a series of computers together and allows them to share information. Through LAN, players can connect their games together, and can play multiplayer fighting each other, and even passed up. Some of these games come in the form of first person shooters where players can be a team of SWAT officers, military group, secret agents, space troops, and the list goes on. A lot of other types are also available and make great games because of LAN capabilities.

Increase in MMORPG

massively multiplayer online role-playing games have been of the more popular types of games lately. These are the usual role-playing you in which you control a certain character, starting out with menial equipment, and make a lot of search in order to become stronger and get money. MMORPGs have taken this further. Because of the Internet, players are now able to interact with each other in a virtual environment. In the game, players can choose to trade equipment, help each other with quests, fighting each other, and fight monsters side by side.

Some games of this type allow players to have their own jobs so that they can have a currency of “the world”, as they are (it is usually gold and silver). These games have become so addictive, because there are so many things you can do in games. The interactive world you are playing can be so large, traveling from one place to another could take you a long time. Some games have been so addicted that there even has been a story of a guy who was divorced by his wife because MMORPG addiction. Well, as long as you are a responsible person that should be no problem at all with playing these types of games.

Virtual items

People have become so serious when it comes to these MMORPGs, it has even come to the point of them to buy components used inside the game with real money. Some would spend hundreds of dollars to buy things, or even strong characters. There are particular websites where you can auction such items. There are cases where this is fine because you are not actually buying a tangible product.

Computer networking has made the possibility of gaming endless. There are countless more innovations to come, and who knows what the next trend might be. It is a great thing that technology such as the Internet and local area networks are able to bring us a better entertainment.


Computer Network router, hubs and switches


When computer networks are working well, which we hope is most of the time, the inner workings of the system modules are transparent to the average user. The most common elements on the network, not counting cables, are “way”, “hubs”, and “switches”. Many of these modules can be similar cosmetically. Each assembly typically has Ethernet connectors (RJ45, which looks like an oversized telephone plug) and LED indicators. However, these modules function differently, and it is important to understand the difference.

Modern network hardware operates on the “Open System Interconnection” (OSI) standard. This standard specifies how communication network should be implemented. By accordance with this standard, modules from different manufacturers can coexist on the same network. Wireless Internet (WiFi) and 802.11x standard are more a subset of networks.

When a message is sent between computers, it is broken into pieces. At the base level, the message is reduced to “1” and “0” bits. The next level is a group of bits called a “frame”. A frame contains its control information, including target address and error detection. The next level is a group of frames called a “packet”. The terms frame and packet are sometimes used interchangeably. If a message is sent on a complex network like the Internet, some packages may take a different path, and recombined at the destination.

Error detection is used with both frames and packets. The most common routine is called “Cyclic Redundancy Check” (CRC). CRC sums of all “1” s in the frame or packet. This number is stored as a hexadecimal value at the end of the frame / packet. On the receiving end, the process is repeated. If the two hexadecimal values ​​agree, the test passes. If not, the receiving device requests that the sending device resend. Most of this functionality is performed by integrated circuits (chips) inside the network modules.

The Hub

The network hub operates on the first layer of the OSI standard, called the “physical layer”. The center is the simplest of the three units. A hub is not aware of the contents of the messages processed; that the message bits. It simply records the signal, and rebroadcast it to all, including back to the port from which the message. An “active” hub will clean the electrical signal of noise and amplify signals before broadcast. A “passive” hub does not amplify the signal; she just gets the signal, and rebroadcast the signal as received to each port. Hubs are sometimes used to connect multiple computers with a printer.

The Network Switch

The network switch operates on the second layer of the OSI standard, called the “data link layer”. The network switch, as the name suggests, the switch signal paths, so that a message frame goes to a specific destination. A switch will improve the network performance, especially on networks with many computers. A switch has enough on board intelligence to remember the path to each destination. The network switch the message frame.

When you connect the computer to a network switch, the switch registers the Media Access Control or “Mac” address of the network interface card in the computer (NIC). This is called address protocol, or “ARP”. When a frame is received intended for a specific computer, the switch sent the frame only to that computer. By inhibiting mechanisms of the network from being utilized by every frame, network resources preserved. Computer A can send a frame to computer B, while simultaneously, computer C is sending a frame to computer D.

The Network Router

The network router operates on the third layer of the OSI standard, called “network layer”. Name router is also indicative of its role. Routers have some of the same capabilities as switches, but routers are typically used to connect two or more networks. For example, a way could be used to connect a wireless network with a conventional local area network (LAN). Another common use is to connect the LAN with the Internet (a “wide-area network”, or “WAN”). In this role, the router uses “Network Address Translation” (NAT) so that all computers attached to networks share a single IP address. A network router handles the message in packets. A router uses the IP addresses in the packet to dispose of them between multiple networks.

A personal computer can be configured to deal with the role of the router if it is equipped with router software and two or more network interface cards (NIC). A separate NIC is needed for each network.

A router is capable of advanced functions, including serving as DHCP (domain host control protocol) server and firewall. A Firewall protects computers from potential hazards from the other computers outside the network. Linking multiple networks often requires the conversion of protocols.

A router is an extremely diverse classification. Routers may provide connectivity inside offices, between different locations, and between businesses and the Internet. Largest way connect Internet service providers, are used in very large enterprise networks, or affiliate company of satellite distant corporate site. Advanced routers are powerful computers, complete with microprocessors. Very sophisticated routers are used by the Internet to manage the network traffic most efficiently.

directly, but a table called “routing information base” (RIB) that tracks information about the available routes. The RIB can be static (manually determined by a network administrator) or dynamic (continually updated to changing circumstances). A RIB is simple on a small LAN, but can be very complex in a very large way used Internet.


There are more types of network modules than the three discussed here, and there can be significant overlap in roles. For example, “intelligent hub” We have many characteristics of a network switch. Wireless network (WAN) have much in common with conventional LAN cousins, but additional protocol is added for the special security and interference concerns specific to wireless networks. Many functions can be combined into one assembly. Network routers sometimes have subassemblies that function as network switches.


Increased Computer Network Security to achieve HIPAA Compliance


Secure computer networks are an intrinsic part of HIPAA policies completely change the national medical patents in electronic form, which can be easily exchanged between different agencies such as health care, insurance providers and managers. Therefore, health care organizations can manage the documentation process efficient in minimal time and provide better services to patients. But to date computer system is vulnerable to hacking and virus attacks that steal or destroy important data. To protect patient health information, network security rules that must be followed, so that the organization is able to achieve HIPAA compliance.

There are two main parts HIPAA related to network security and they are:

Administrative Safeguards:

To achieve HIPAA compliance, the need exists to find, guard inform against malicious software program system. Infected emails carry the worms, viruses and Trojans, and there should be security in place to stop this intrusion. To manage computer networks well, it is necessary to maintain a vigil by setting specific safeguards mentioned below:

  • Gateway and desktop anti-virus product should be used.
  • The Security Gateway should be able to perform, deep-packet-penetration inspection and appropriate web filtering capabilities to the network.
  • Signature files should be used to update every 30 minutes, as they are the best form of defense against fast moving worms.
  • All the security services and the system should be proactive with IPS (Intrusion Protection System) instead of IDS (Intrusion Detection System). This is necessary to protect the network from being infected with the virus.
  • Installed firewall should provide protection against the top 50 Dos and DDoS well-known attacks. Installed security system should record the number of time the attacks have been made against them effectively.

Security Safety

For a network to achieve HIPAA compliance is necessary for organizations to frame security, permitting selected manpower or software to gain access to protected health information.

  • The security device should support the native form of authentication. For web related applications Transparent Authentication (TA) should be used so that the same user moves to different secure applications need to log in, his or her username and password every time he or she makes the jump.
  • The security system should support email content filtration process with keywords and regular expressions band features.
  • to prevent, unauthorized access or stop, the patient’s health information when on the route between the sender and receiver, the proper encryption technology should be used. Transfer of Public Health to the public network should be in strong encryption mode and received by registered users, which should have required deciphering codes.
  • The security should constantly monitor any unwanted or suspicious deviations from standard procedures and report anomalous activity immediately IT manager.
  • Special security features like email content filtering and application of digital signatures should be added to the system to prohibit the transmission of confidential data to unconfirmed receiver.

In the end it is necessary for all parties involved in the healthcare system as, health service providers, insurance companies, transcription service providers, payers, labs, service providers, hospitals and billing services to build a chain of trust so all patient health information transferred between them is kept highly confidential. This can be done through a network of computer systems that strictly follow HIPAA compliance standards for easy, safe and secure transmission of confidential health of the public network.


Installing Small Business network


How to set up a computer for Your Small Business

Small business computer networks has become common in the current business that relies so much on technology development. While it may seem like a daunting task, set up a network technology has become a do-it-yourself projects that do not need to hire a techie or specialist. With the following information you can acquire the tools to set up your own company’s computer network.

Advantages network computers center around the concept of efficiency. A network allows you to make the best use of computers and technology equipment, perhaps in the way that you were not even aware of. Networks promote the sharing of resources, whether the resources are files and software or even physical devices such as printers. Internet connection itself is also part of various computers employed. The emerging system is one of the best small business ideas to improve productivity by creating a sense of community among both technology and employees.

debate wired versus wireless comes down to personal preference. Wireless devices have become popular due to lower prices and ease of use. The wireless approach allows greater freedom in that you do not have to rely on cable or have the technical equipment in certain areas. That is not to say Ethernet (wired) network is obsolete. Wired connections tend to be more reliable and speedier than wireless, while remaining untouched by variables that tend to affect the wireless connection.

Beginning of small business computer networking comes in a choice of operating system. Again, this has much to do with personal preference. Windows 7 / Vista / XP and Apple OS X are standards and should serve you well, especially if you are already familiar with them. Each has built-in networking capabilities that are easy to manage from a laptop to a Desktop Computer. Outside of actual computers need some equipment. This includes the way (possibly two or more if you install a large area) and some Ethernet cables. WiFi will require a cable to connect the way to a central computer that will represent server. This will connect the way Internet connection, allowing remote computers with wireless capabilities to connect to the LAN (Local Area Network).

How do you keep your computer, your wireless network secure? Implementation password may be a basic first step that will weed out those trying to illegally access your server. WEP encryption and software company also serve as a further step to keep outsiders from getting into your network. Much of this can be set up within the operating system. In addition, you can use the browser security settings to prevent attacks on your server. Small business computer networks has become a common and should be taken by those looking to make their business more efficient in time where business and technology go hand in hand.