Computer Networking


Computer networking is a process of sharing data and shared resources between two or more connected computers. The shared resources can be printers, fax modems, hard disk, CD – DVD Rom, database and data files. A computer network can be divided into small or local area network, a network between computers in the construction of office (LAN), medium-sized network (MAN) networking between institutions in the city and Wide network (WAN) A network between computers, one is on site and the other may be thousands of miles away in any other country in the world.

WAN connection is achieved by a network device called “Router”. The Internet is the largest WAN network of the world, millions of computers around the world and connected with each other.

Net is the practice of linking two or more computers or devices with each other. The connection can be wired or wireless. A computer can be categorized in different ways, depending on the geographical region mentioned above.

There are two main types of network client-server and peer to peer. The client server computing, computer plays an important role called server, which records data in the form of websites, docs or spread sheet files, video, database and resources are put.

All other computers in a client / server network are called clients and they get data from the server. In the peer to peer network all the computers play the same role and no computer act as a centralized server. The major companies worldwide client-server network model is the main use.

A network topology defines the structure, design or organizational network. There are different topologies like bus, ring, star, mesh, hybrid etc. The star topology is the most common network topology. In a star topology, all the computers in a network connected by a central device such as a hub or switch. Thus forming such a structure. If the hubs / switch fails to work for any reason then all the connectivity and communication between computers of the network will be stopped.

In a network, a common communication language used by computers and network devices and this language is known as protocols. The most common and popular books on the internet and in the home and other networks is called TCP / IP. TCP / IP is not a single protocol, but it is a suite of several protocols.

AA network can be wired or wireless network and TCP / IP protocols can work in both types of networks. data flow in the network can be divided into seven logical layers called OSI layer model that was developed by Intel and Xerox Corporation and was standardized in ISO.

1. Application layer

2. Promotion track

3. Session layer

4. Transport layer

5. Network layer

6. Data Link layer

a. Media access control sub-layer

b. Logical Link Control sub-layer

7. Physical layer.

A network can be divided into different scale and range and it depends on the requirement of network and geographic location. Computer Network can be divided into Local Area Network, Personal Area Network, Campus Area Network, Wireless Local Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network and Wide Area Network.

There are several methods network connection as HomePNA, Power line communication, Ethernet and WiFi connectivity method.A network can also be categorized into several different types based on the services it provides, such as data centers, network storage area, Value control net value added networks, SOHO networks, wireless networks and network Jungle.


All About Computer Networking


Computers have become part of our everyday lives. It seems that no matter what we see and touch, there is some sort of computer that works in it. Imagine getting a lot of computers, and link them all together; that’s where computer networking comes in. This has become very useful and there are different types of networks that are available. Computer networking has become related to other bodies of knowledge such as telecommunications, computer engineering, and information technology.

Personal Area Network

This type of network connects devices that are close to her. These devices can be printers, fax machines, scanners, webcams, and even PDAs. There was a time when your computer would be filled with wires and such because of these devices, but the great thing is that there have been so many developments with wireless technology. Nowadays, you can use a new wireless devices that incorporate infrared and Bluetooth. Imagine not having to deal with the replacement of the wire, while having a number of devices interconnected through your personal area network

Local Area Network

A local area network allows computers on the same area to exchange information. They are usually connected by LAN cable, and this is often used in offices and computer shops. People who are computer games have also enjoyed this type of computer networks. There are a lot of games where you can use networks, and interact with other players in your area.

The Internet

What started as a way to exchange information of the military and universities has become a widespread global phenomenon. Most of our activities are now intertwined with the Internet and it has become quite difficult to function in society without it. Nowadays, we send emails, chat, shop, and even have food delivered through the magic of the World Wide Web. It has made the world shrink, and businesses can now do business with customers from the other side of the globe. You can even get a college degree from online courses offered by reputable universities. The Net has mostly brought convenience to allow their users and this is one of the reasons why it has become so popular.

Internet tips

There are countless websites that can be found on the Internet and it is important that you double-check the site if you are buying an item. You never know whether the site is a scam, and may only need your email to fill it with spam. If you are not sure about a product or service, Net is also a worthy companion. There are a lot of forums that allow users to discuss certain issues such as politics, shopping, music, and auction websites.

There are some more types of computer networks, such as a wide area network (including the Internet and Public Switched Telephone Network) Metropolitan Area Network and wireless networks (such as WLAN and WWLAN). All these networks help us with our daily lives through connecting different devices and making everything more convenient. With all the developments in technology, there is a chance that every device we own would soon be connected.


Computer Network, Systems, and database administrators are in demand


If you are looking for a fast-paced career that combines technology with creativity, check out the field of computer network, systems and database management. This dynamic career path reflects the growing number of computer networks in business today.

At work, computers and computer networks have become an integral part of everyday life. Almost everyone who works in the office has a computer, and big business may have thousands of workstations, each with a computer terminal. These computers do not just sit on a table as small islands; they need to be linked together in one seamless system. The ways in which computers are connected are local-area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), network segment, and Internet and intranet systems. Networking can be very complicated, and create a network of computers is a task that must be performed by highly qualified personnel.

Network and computer systems administrators design, install and support its computer network system. Network and computer administrators in a wide variety of organizations, including professional offices, government agencies, small businesses, and large enterprises. They identify problems, maintain network hardware and business software, and network monitoring to ensure their effectiveness. Managers may plan, coordinate and implement network security, they can collect data to identify customer needs and then use the information to identify, interpret, and evaluate system and network requirements.

system operators to ensure that the design of computer systems company with makes all things, including the internet, computers and software to work properly together. They are often responsible for maintaining the efficiency of the system, and they monitor and adjust the system performance. They explore the constant current computer system to determine the future needs of the network, solving problems reported by users and by automated network monitoring systems and make recommendations for future updating system.

When the computers in the sales office crash, or when The Finance people can not access their networked spreadsheets, or when the warehouse can not access the internal network to monitor the shipment, the company can become paralyzed. A network system administrator is the one who can, and should solve these network issues. It is important position.

Education and training are key . BS degree required many network and computer systems administrator positions. In addition, many employers will require that applicants have specialized computer network training of the type offered by a career college. The best way to explore career training potential is to sign a reputable online college directory and compare computer training. Choose the ones that are right for you and free information package from the schools. This will allow you to make the best choice for career education

Here are some of the program areas that are key to this career field

• Computers and Electronics – Knowledge of circuit boards. , Processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming

• English -. Knowledge of the structure and content of the English including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar

• Mathematics – .. Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications

• Administration and Management – Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

The career outlook is excellent . According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), in the current decade from 2008 to 2018 employment of computer network, systems and database administrators is expected to increase by 30 percent, which is much faster than average for all occupations. Demand for network managers is expected to increase as companies continue to invest in new technologies.

Compensation can be generous . According to the BLS, as of May 2006, the median annual income of wage-and-salary network and computer systems administrators was $ 62.130. Not bad!

If you are looking for a challenging and rewarding career, check out computer systems career training. It may open a new door to a bright future.


Why Setup Home Computer Network?


If you have more than one computer in your house and it might be a good idea to set up a network. The benefits of having a home network are many and include:

Freedom to work anywhere – with a home network allows you to work from any place in your house, even while you are in bed. Have you ever wanted to read or work on a document on your laptop while you’re nice and comfortable in bed only to realize the last time you were working on it, it was on the desktop computer in the living room. You have to go a comfortable bed, find your storage devices such as USB thumb drive and copy the file to your laptop. With the network, this is not necessary as you can easily access files on any computer on the network anywhere

Everyone can use the Internet. – If you have children, you know how difficult it can be to keep the peace when there is only one computer that has the Internet on it. Everyone will have gone the network everyone can use the internet at the same time and there will be no more arguments about John hogging the computer

You save money -. You can save a lot of money by setting up a home network. This is because you do not have to buy the peripherals such as printers and modems for every computer in the house. All computers that are connected can share resources.


Uses Computer Networks


Computer Networks are everywhere. From distributed systems to the central ware and world wide web, computer network has proven to improve the technology to reach places and programs to serve.

  1. Business Applications Resource sharing is one of the most popular use of computer networks in the business applications. For example, the printer is shared in the network and hence saves a lot of investment in hardware. Computers connected to the network can make use of the printer in the network instead of having a separate printer for each computer. Scanners, CD burners, fax machines are some other resources that can be shared in a network. Email facility with the help of Outlook application has made relations between the company to send reports and data analysis. It would be a server, handling requests of all the computers connected to the network. Customers pass the request and the server works on the request to give an answer.
  2. Home Networking Computers nowadays are used only for person to person communication with the help of the Internet. Internet can be used to have remote access to the information, person – person communication As discussed earlier electronic commerce, Interactive entertainments like games. Interactive entertainments such as XBOX gaming online and online courses used for flash interactive environment. Nowadays, people can buy a computer just for the sake of viewing their email that allows person to person contact. With the help of VPN (Virtual Private Network) can work and access office documents right from home. The match -peer system is no client system. Every computer in a network is connected to every other computer through wires.
  3. Mobile Users With the advent of technology to improve protocols for better communication, WAP (Wireless Access Protocol is now increasingly used to communicate network There are two types. wireless Fast Wireless and Mobile Wireless Desktop computers in an office are neither fixed nor mobile wireless A notebook computer used in a hotel room with the help of Ethernet cable is an example of mobile wireless and not .. Fast Wireless. Networks old Unwired building is an example of the typical Fast Wireless and not of mobile wireless. Portable office or PDA for store inventory is a perfect example of fixed and mobile wireless technologies used. M -commerce use mobile phones to pay money using credit cards and act as electronic wallets.


Development of Computer Networking


Networking computers is combining several independent disciples of science and engineering such as telecommunications, computer science, information technology and / or computer engineering. Computers are connected to each other primarily through telecommunications. Telecommunications, in turn, can be run by computers and both wired and wireless settings. To achieve sophisticated technology precision devices, including computers, which are used in building efficient computer networks information technology and computer science have been a booster.

chronicle the development of Computer Networking

Even before the nineteenth century, the visual signal is considered to be used in the network. Communication between machines calculation used to do by passing instructions manually. The development of current day computer networking can be traced back to the middle of the last century. Chronologically, it can be summarized as follows:

September 1940 – Using teletype machine George Stibitz to send instructions for a problem set from his model of Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and get back the results of

August 1962 -. Computer scientist JCR Licklider of Bolt, Beranek and Newman Company formulated and published the concept of linking output systems like teletypes to computers to built “Intergalactic Computer Network”

October 1963 -. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) hired JCR Licklider to design and develop the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in favor of the US Department of Defense to share resources and information

1964 -. Researchers developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for discrete computer systems at Dartmouth. In the same year, a group of researchers at MIT succeeded to route and manage telephone using computers. This project was supported by General Electric and Bell Labs

1965 -. Lawrence G. Roberts and Thomas Merrill succeeded in creating the first wide area network (WAN). In the same year, the very first use PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) switch was introduced by Western Electric. It was important as it used true computer control for networking for the first time in the history of

November 1969 -. The first permanent ARPANET link was established between the Interface Message Processor (IMP) at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the IMP at Stanford Research Institute

December 1969 -. All four-node network with University of California, Santa Barbara, UCLA, Stanford Research Institute and the University Computer Science Department Utah on respective nodes was connected

1972 -. Commercial services using X.25 were submitted and later used as the underlying infrastructure for expanding Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol network

1989 – .. World Wide Web was invented by Timothy Berners- Lee at the European Laboratory of Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland

continuous effort to connect through computer networks and also communication between them, the technology has been evolving through augmentation of computer hardware, software and peripherals industries. As a result, the scope of communication has developed manifold. Such a development would have been impossible without progress in the network.


Local Area Network – Computer Networking


Local Area Networks also called LAN has been a major player in the industrialization computers. In the past 20 or so years at home industry has been invaded by new computer technology. It has made such an impact on how we do business, it has become necessary with the ever increasing need for reform. Local giving the employer to share information between computers with a simple relatively inexpensive system network cards and software. It also allows the user or users share hardware such as printers and scanners. Speed ​​access between computers is lighting fast because the data is short in reach. In most cases, the LAN occupies only one or a group of buildings located next to each other. For larger areas it needs are some other types of networks such as the Internet.

lans system can identify and connect in many different ways. This is why standardization for each one can have common ground to start from. “The networks described here are distinguished from other types of data networks in that they are optimized for the medium size of the territory as a single office building, warehouse, or campus. The IEEE 802 LAN is a common medium of peer-to-peer communications network that broadcasts information for all stations to obtain. Consequently, it is not inherently provide privacy. The LAN allows stations to communicate directly with a common medium of a point-to-point basis without intermediate switching node is needed. There is always a need for access sublayer to arbitrate the access to the shared medium. The network is generally owned, used and managed by a single organization. This is in contrast to Wide Area Networks (WANs) which interconnects communication facilities in different parts of the country or are used as a public utility. These LAN are also different networks, such as Backplane buses, which are optimized for the interconnection of devices on the desk or components within a single piece of equipment. “(IEEE 802 Standard 1990) It is a standard definition for the networks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineer Committee 802. They are named used to set standards in workmanship and activities for technicians to install and perform maintenance on Lans system. And through all the technical words, what they are trying to say is LAN is a small area network that disseminates information among computers in a small environment unlike WANs that distribute information across international territories. “It is usually the case that the LAN is owned by the same organization as the attached devices. For WANs, this is less often the case, or at least a significant part of the net assets are not owned. This has two implications. First, be sure the selection of the LAN, where he could be a significant investment (compared to dial-up or leased lines charges for wide-area network) for both purchase and maintenance. Second, the network management responsibility for local network falls only on the user. ” (Local and metropolitan area networks 1997).

The question now is you have a standard and you are connected now how you manage the system to run flawless? “Networks use protocols or regulations, exchange of information, however, a single shared connection. These protocols prevent collisions of data due to the simultaneous transmission between two or more computers. Computers on most networks using protocols known as Ethernet or Token Ring. An Ethernet-connected computer checks if the common connection is used. If not, the computer sends data. Because the computer can detect idle connection and send data at the same time, send computers continue to monitor collectively their relationship and stop sending in case of collision. Token Ring protocol withstand a Message called icons today. A computer that receives symbol is given permission to send a packet of information or, if your computer does not have packages to send, it went icon next computer. “(Local Area Network Microsoft 2000) I know it is complicated to understand, but the actual user software handles most all the management for you.

There are seven things that networks can do that you can not easily do with non-networked stand-alone system. First share files “A LAN allows multiple users to share one copy of a file stored on a central file server computer.” (Introduction to Networking 1992) Transferring files “A LAN allows you to copy files from machine to machine without having to exchange floppy disks.” (Understanding Data Communications 1993) access data and files “A LAN allows anyone to run accounting software, for example, or other application software from any workstation “(Introduction to Networking 1992) share applications” A LAN allows two people to use the same copy of Microsoft Word word processing program simultaneously “(Introduction to Network 1992) Simultaneous key application . Printer sharing and e-mail in the system.

Finally LAN has become essential in the modern working environment. The ever increasing need for progress has become a very profitable industry in its self and it will continue to grow for a long time to come. For now we barely skimming the possibilities and uses for this new network technology.


Computer Networking – Elements and Components


When studying computer network, must be considered the main factors that threaten the network. The main factors to be considered will be as follows:

1. The message: the message is a generic term that scribes data to send. It can be email, website, user call, instant message, or other form. The message is generated by the end user who needs to make the transmission. This letter will be fed to the network later.

general message to the software installed on the computer. For example, if the message is email, it will generate email programs like outlook. Also, if the message is a website request, it will be generated by browsers such as Internet Explorer. It is also possible to form a chat program, it represents a call by the user.

2. Medium: the medium is the transmission path of the data being sent. Is used to connect end users with the network device or to connect network devices to each other.

Many types are available for the media. Mostly it can be wired or wireless medium. Wired medium can be copper or fiber. Copper is divided into coaxial cables and twisted pair. Copper wires carry data as electrical pulses and fiber carry data as light pulses. Air Route the data of the electromagnetic waves. Each of the above media has its own specifications and their use according to the application.

3. Equipment: There are two main types of devices in the network, end user devices and network devices. The end user device is considered to be the source of the message. It can be the client computer or IP phone. The role of the end user device to send data to the network.

On the other hand, the network devices are combined with a medium to transmit data generated by the end user device.

The main function of the computer networking devices to send data to the proper destination based on the address which is sent along they are located between the end user devices and connected between them via cable. data. The two main tools to achieve this are routers and switches. The way forward, according to the data IP address the switch sends the data according to MAC address inside the data frame.

4. Rules: rules of professional conduct governing the end user devices that organize communication. Two popular protocols are IP protocol and the TCP protocol. When the end user needs to transmit data, it runs first conversation with other devices under the rules prepares for transmission. Each network uses its own protocols set up by the administrator of the system to control the inside of the system. Note that this component is a software component and installing of software applications


Computer Network Technology


What is a computer network though? Networking is a set of computers, printers and other devices that connect with each other to share information and move data through the cable. Many users can print with the same printer, or use the same software at the same time. A computer that stores key information and plays the role of the data is called the Server computers that are connected to the network and receive data from the server are called workstations.

Many of the networks

1. Local Area Network (LAN)

A network is limited by the small area is commonly used by small office building or school. Usually it is not far from 1 km square. Most LAN uses cables and LAN card to connect one computer to another. Each computer connected to the LAN has a different Internet Protocol address. It is usually abbreviated as IP address. LAN can also be set up through Wireless Technology which has speed of 10 to 10,000 Mbps. Wireless LAN can use infrared or radio waves.

Features LAN

a. Share files and printers is easy to do among computers.

b. The risk of losing data due to virus can be reduced.

c. If there is one computer connected to the modem, all computers can access the Internet.

d. There is a lot of space in the storage system (hard disk) to store documents.

e. Files stored on the server can be accessed by the client computer with permission. The authorization may be made in accordance with the business development of the company.

2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

This type of network usually has a larger area than a LAN, or it can contain any LAN networks that are connected to each other. The example of MAN is a network that is based in a wide complex campus.

3. Wide Area Network (WAN)

WAN is a kind of network that is usually built via satellite or submarine cable technology. An example of a WAN is a Bank network in the capital that can share information with regional banking network. They can also hold meetings with video conferencing over the Internet

Features WAN :.

a. We can send files or documents by electronic mail (email) instead of sending documents manually through post office.

b. A network Server in Headquarter can be a database from a branch.

c. Company data can be updated daily as necessary.