Network Troubleshooting Commands


Troubleshooting computer network is among the most important job descriptions of the network administrators, system administrators, network technicians and IT consultants. A computer can have different types of problems, so that it can be infected with viruses and spyware, attacked by hackers, unauthorized users and may face connectivity failure issues due to faulty network equipment or configuration. The following is a list of the main troubleshooting network commands that are based on Windows based operating systems and UNIX etc. appropriate use of these troubleshooting commands can helps a lot to analyze and solve a computer network.


Ping is the most important troubleshooting command and it checks the connection with other computers. For example, the computer’s IP address is and your network servers IP address and provide connectivity to the server by using the Ping command in the following format.

At the DOS command Ping and press enter

If you get a response from the server when the connection is okay and if you get an error message like this “Request time out” this means there is any problem in connecting to the server.


ipconfig is another important command in Windows. It shows the IP address of the computer and also shows the DNS, DHCP, Gateway addresses network and subnet mask.

At the DOS command ipconfig and press Enter to see the IP address of your computer.

At the DOS command inconfig / all and press Enter to see the details.


Nslookup is a TCP / IP based command and it checks domain name aliases, DNS records, operating system information by sending query the Internet Domain Name Servers. You can resolve errors with DNS server network phone


Hostname command shows you the computer name.

At the DOS command Hostname and press Enter


netstat utility shows the protocols statistics and current established TCP / IP connections on the computer.


nbtstat helps to resolve NetBIOS name resolutions problems.


ARP display and change the IP to physical address translation table that is used by ARP system.


Finger command is used to retrieve information about a user on a network.


Tracert command is used to determine the path of the remote system. This tool is also the number of hops and the IP address of each hop. For example, if you want to see how many hops (routers) in the case to reach the path and what is the IP address of each hop then use the following command.

At the command prompt type Tracer www. you will see a list of all the hops and IP addresses.


Traceroute is a very useful network debugging command and it is used to locate the server that is slowing down the transmission on the Internet and it also shows the route between the two systems


Route command allows you to do manually in the routing table.

hopefully the above command will help you analyze the problems of the computer network problems.


Connecting Lines – Computer Networking Explained


In a nutshell, the computer network is basically a collection of computers linked together in a way that it can transmit data and share resources. This set of connections is not necessary for computers with the same operating system (OS), it does not even need to use similar types of gadgets. A perfect example is a personal data assistant (PDA). One can connect the PDA to a laptop over a network. Even kitchen appliances such as internet enabled refrigerator uses networks to enable surfing functions.

How is the network cover?

There are various methods to connect computers and other gadgets on the network. And among the plethora of ways and means, the most common network method is to use cables. The market provides various cables from copper-wired fiber each with advantages and disadvantages

Copper Wire :. Unshielded twisted pair cable (UTP)

The UTP is one of the commonly used cables for local area network (LAN) connection, which is really to connect several computers within a small geographical area (including name, LAN). Return to UTP, this is a combination of two unshielded and insulated copper wire coiled and twisted together to reduce electrical interference. This type of cable is often chosen because of its flexibility, easy maintenance and low cost. The downside, it can (and will) possibly get considerable damage from electrical power.

Fiber Optics

Data is divided by submitting tension along the wire. But for fiber, the data is transmitted through light pulses. But UTP has copper, fiber optics has threadlike strands of glass or silica. The process goes like this: the laser means digital signals into pulses of light and passes it down into a series of glass filaments. Fibre offer rapid data correspondence, though this speed comes with a price, pocket burning price. With that said, such a connection is often seen to exploit the huge Internet service providers (ISP) and data center, not in the office or home network

Network Topology :. Bus Network

Simply put, network topology is the physical development of the network. And the bus network is the most simple among various networking topologies. Let us start with the bus. All machines connect up to a linear transmission channel, or bus.

In operation, when the computer sent out data through the bus, all connected machines can handle data, otherwise known as a package. These packages are pieces of information Tagged as packet headers. And these headings, in turn, reflect the recipient or the computer or machine data are intended for. Bus probe head :. If it is for that computer then the whole package is approved and received, but if not, it will just ignore

The downside: One at a time

Unfortunately, the bus can only seen one data at any time. Here, two is a crowd. Imagine what could happen if the three computers in the network simultaneously transmit data. Well, you’ll definitely have some network problems if this collision happens. Speaking of impact, if and when the two computers simultaneously send data, the main computer (or the first to notice the collision) will send a blocking signal into the bus. This will trigger a standstill among connected computers prevent further data exchange.

Network Interface Cards (NIC)

NICs usually manage ‘to and from’ or transmission of packets over a wire bridge the computers in one network. It also provides a forum for communication among computers.


Hub is designed for smaller computer networks. The problem with this is that it’s not sort packages, which means that data can be sent to the wrong recipient. Another is that the data will be open to all networks. Security wise, this is not the way to go.


To speed things up, this is a network device that distributes data packets between two networks carry different protocols. Yes, it is blinking box that allows you to connect to the Internet.

There you go. This is just scratching the surface network. You can choose to scour the Internet for more information.


What is Network Security? Simplified Definition


First of all, what is a network?

The network we refer to here is a computer that has so many definitions of many sources, whether online or elsewhere. Simply put, a network between the connection cables and other communications media, connectivity equipment, such as switches and routers, electronic devices such as computers, printers, scanners, plotters, etc., in order to share data and resources.

Whoa! Now, that does not sound simple at all, is it? Alright, let’s give it a second try …

A Network is the connection protocol, connection equipment and electronic devices in order to share data and resources.

Now, it was not too hard, was it? And here’s the second question …

What is Security?

This is easy, as the word means the safety or preservation, protection or welfare.

So simply put, Network Security refers to any company which is intended to protect the network.

Why do we protect or “Secure” network?

We need to protect the network because it is a constant threat against the “resources” that we share in the net. This could be valuable information or data about our employees and customers, or more importantly about our products or company. Most of these threats come in the form of

* viruses, worms and Trojan horses

* Spyware and adware

* zero-day attacks, also called zero-hour attacks

* Hacker attacks

* denial of service attack

* Data interception and theft

* Identity Theft

In order for us to fully understand what the “Network Security Solution” is all about, we must also understand how network security works. Because there are a variety of threats, there is no single solution. We need multiple layers of security, so that if one fails, the attacker would have to deal with the next song.

Network Security Systems are usually composed of many elements of both software and hardware that are designed to work together to improve security and integrity. . The software will relentlessly updated to prevent new threats from

These factors are:

* Anti-virus and anti-spyware

* Firewall to block unauthorized access to your network

* Intrusion prevention system (IPS) to detect and block attacks

* Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), to provide secure remote access


E-Commerce Supporting Technologies – Computer, Computer Networking, Internet, Internet Connectivity


E-Commerce and the word indicating the way to do business online or online. The scope of business may include:

o selling hard goods online, such as telephone, computer or shoes

o electronic products, such as e-books, MP3 music, software, graphics or photos

o selling ideas or service

to sell products merchant must have a website or virtual store online for him to sell products on line. A prospective customer finds that site, buys goods on it, pays owner using a credit card or by other means. Merchant receives payment and deliver the product and customer support. Practically, it is e-commerce in its simplest meaning.

Between these e-commerce transactions much technology are instructed to complete the sale. For example, the merchant has to design and build a website developed using a complex programming language called HTML. Merchant register a domain identity his business on the internet. All information and products from the online store or its business are encoded and stored on your server merchant or hosted by a third party web hosting company. For the client to find the merchant’s site, he needs a computer which is then connected to the system commonly known as the Internet, for him to be able to visit the merchant’s site.

The Personal Computer in relation to E-Commerce

A PC or Personal Computer is a computing device or tool built around a microprocessor. It has lots of different parts – memory, hard disk, modem, etc … that work together. It is also called a general purpose equipment. General purpose means that you can do many different things with a computer. You can use it to type documents, send emails, surf the internet and play games.

Every own, the computer can be used to speed up the processing and storage of information, such as word processing. It can also be made to send and receive information from other computers. These computers can talk and exchange information from each other through a common computer language or protocol. The PC is the most valuable and core technology required to run e-commerce and Internet Business.

Computer Network in conjunction with E-Commerce

Two or more computers can be physically linked and made to communicate with other computers in the local network (LAN). The term used to describe this interconnection is called networking. Networking of computers can be done using either a wired (cable) or wireless (radio) type of connection. Typically, the network or the connection of computers is subject to the range or distance limitation because the signal and quality of communication will reduce the distance increases. Computer Networking is applied for most on-line internet business for efficient and productive e-commerce business.

The Internet in connection with the E-Commerce

Internet is a system that connects computer networks. The system of internet enables the interconnection of computers worldwide. It allows your computer to get stored information from other computers far away.

The Protocol (TCP / IP) or language when computer communicate online is similar to what is used on the internet. That is why computers around the world understand each other despite different maker and place of manufacture.

Lots of computers around the world are stored with lots and lots of information. The internet system hooked them together. If you have Internet access, you can read, hear and see all of this information from your computer. The Internet is all the reason behind the existence of E-Commerce and without connectivity virtual on-line business will totally cease to exist.

Telecommunication in relation to E-Commerce

A different type of technology needed to transmit information from one computer to another over long distances. Telecoms come into the picture to service the requirement of connecting one computer to another computer network with different types of transmission technologies.

Telecommunication is a broad term that includes not only keeps the data, such as the internet but includes voice telephony as well.

telecommunication companies run Internet company to achieve connectivity. Without them could never put their business on-line as only telecom companies are able to link networks over very vast geographical distance.

Connectivity in relation to E-Commerce

Connectivity is a broader concept than the net. Net refers to physical (wired) or virtual (wireless) connectivity between computers. Connectivity refers to the state of being connected. For example, the computer can sync to the phone, music players and other devices. Internet or state of being connected to the internet information super-highway is a classic example of the connection.

Internet Connectivity is important both in urban and rural remote areas of the world.

Some regions are suffering from a lack of telecommunications infrastructure like internet services is very limited. To achieve connectivity, remote villages either use satellite link, wireless radio and long-range phone extenders. Some communities have been tele centers that serve the communication area and outside link to the rest of the world. All forms of connectivity including connections to help push the envelope of internet business as a whole.

So you’ve read the E-commerce overview and support strategy. Try to imagine and picture out how e-commerce is to exercise and how important is the technology to make it possible.


Use Modem wireless router to update Your Personal Computer Network


More and more people want internet at home, and in accordance with the number of computers in the home need to have Internet connectivity is increasing. But who wants to cables running around the home? Cable modem wireless router allows multiple computers in the home to connect to the Internet without mess or fuss, and without the risk of tripping over the numerous cords. These devices provide fast and reliable access to the Internet for multiple machines through a modem. Laptop users can work any room in the house, moving from room to room as they want without being limited by location Ethernet port or cable lengths.

How does it work?

Every good quality cable modem wireless router is designed with technology to transfer small packets of data from any computer in the network to any other computer connected to the same network. One computer in the network is directly connected to the Internet through a modem, and this computer acts as the host. Other computers, or in fact any device with Wi-Fi capability, you can connect to the network wirelessly access the Internet through the host computer.

transmission speeds vary between cable modem wireless router, and this affects their performance considerably. Therefore, you should select the fastest way you can. Keep in mind also, that not all routers are compatible with all operating systems, so check the operating systems that run on computers that need to access the network, and make sure there is compatibility. If all computers are PCs or all Macs, this will simplify things for you not completely compatible with both Windows and Apple operating systems. Ease of installation also varies; if you’re not an IT expert you might want to choose the way with easy installation. Most have “help” programs that simplify the steps for you. Finally, remember to prevent unauthorized access network, by setting a password for access. Not only will this help to prevent people from seeing the contents of the hard drive, it will ensure that you do not pay for the bandwidth used by unauthorized persons.

Where do I put the device?

If you live in an apartment or condo or small house, it may not matter where you install the cable modem wireless router. Signal strength drops a certain distance from the router, this distance depending on the physical barriers between the location of a route and the location of the computer trying to access the internet. Therefore, if your home is large enough for this to be a factor, which allows it to send to install the router in a central location, to ensure that all areas of your home are equally covered. If you stop just to access the Internet in certain areas of the home, put the router in the center of the regions rather than the center of the home. Test the strength of carrying a laptop around your home and watch to see if the signal drops off. If it does, move soon, or purchase an additional area to plug in the outlet and improve signal coverage.


Of course, most wireless routers are designed to access the internet easily in all parts of the home. However, they can also serve another purpose. Any computer connected to the network can make its files available to other computers on the network, which enables quick and easy file-sharing, hardware backup and archive update. One library of entertainment (such as music, film and television) can serve for all computers connected to the network. And finally, you can connect a printer, fax and scanner to your network, allowing all computers on the network to wirelessly print or fax or scan from anywhere in the house.


Do you know the target of the network?


Net is much more than Socializing

Casual networkers view networking as a form of something without focus and without goals. Successful networkers see it as a process of building a relationship with very clear goals and objectives.

Business networking, like any other business activity, will be a productive use of time. To maximize network efficiency, you to better define your goals and objectives

The following are some of the most common targets for business networkers :.

Increase your presence on the market and create a positive impression on as many people in the community business as possible.

Identify those who might be prospects for your products or services

Build relationships with those who offer products or services that could be of value to you or your client.

Build relationships with those who might be a recommendation or policy makers.

Build relationships with those who are influential in the community enterprise.

Build relationships with those who can further your career.

Build relationships with those who could provide business advice or become consultants or trainers.

Those whom you network are experts in their field. They can answer questions about their areas of specialization, share their business experience and knowledge, and in some cases become mentors. No one can know everything there is to know about the business and the advice of others can sometimes be very important. Networking at trade association expos and forums will allow you to meet executives from other companies that may one day be the employer or be able to recommend you for the opening they have heard about. Earn their respect in your community can lead to deals when positions become available. We have all heard the expression: “It’s not what you know, it’s who you know that counts.” Build relationships with influential members of the community enterprise is the key to your success.

Referral partners are individuals who are able and willing to send you referrals in exchange for help to the reference to them. To find them at the networking event, you must have thought carefully about the best referral partners for you could be. You must also have a plan to turn a casual meeting in the opportunity to develop relationships. As a business person you and the company you work for the needs of a wide variety of products and services. Networking is an effective way to meet those who provide these products and services in the community. Customers also need a variety of products and services for business and personal use. If you can control the reputable providers of those services, you will be more valued as a resource and their loyalty will be increased. Keeping the needs of your customer in mind as you meet other network events, should be a routine you get.

Most people see this as the primary objective of the network. To analyze the prospects and create sales opportunities, you will be ready to describe your business and its benefits clearly and succinctly. You will also be ready to qualify “suspects” and, if necessary, submit your Unique Selling Proposition. Aim first network contact is not to close a deal, it is to create a follow up opportunity. Net is an extremely effective way to create awareness in the community enterprise. For many start-up companies, is the only form of marketing that can provide. Fortunately, the network can also be the best deal available Marketing.

Most business professionals view networking as a way of marketing their businesses, but overlook several other goals that may be equally or even more important. Too much emphasis on selling at networking events can leave a negative impact. If you want to make a positive impact, make sure that focuses on them, not you.

What goals and objectives you have set network activities? Which are most important? How will you measure your success? Like any other business activity, you will approach the net with a goal and a plan to achieve them.


How to Connect My Computer to the internet?


Once you have installed the operating system, you must configure your computer to participate in a network environment. What is the network you might ask? A network is a group of computers and other devices, such as mobile phones and network printers that are connected to each other. So all of these devices are able to share information and resources. Shared resources can be folders, printers and Internet connections.

In order to connect to the network, the device will have a network interface card (NIC). The network card is a hardware component that allows the device to connect to the network. Some network cards are integrated into the computer motherboard and some others come as an extra module.

In addition to the physical connection that allows you to connect to the network, then you must also configure the operating system to join the network. Every computer or network device needs an IP address, subnet mask and default gateway. This address identifies a computer online. Let’s say that this is the name of the computer inside the system. The subnet mask is used to identify the network the computer is connected to the default gateway identifies devices that your computer uses to access the Internet or another network. We can set the IP address manually or automatically.

Manual IP configuration

If you choose manual configuration you have to go to every single device and enter the required values ​​via the keyboard. Remember, you need to log in as the administrator for this job. IP to manually is called “static IP address” and is permanently assigned to the device.

Dynamic IP Configuration

Computers and other network capable devices can also be configured to get the IP address dynamically. This allows the device to request address from the DHCP server has a pool of IP addresses. When you close the device IP address will be available again and another computer can use it. Automatic installation is very useful because you can save time and avoid assigning the same IP address to more than one computer on the network.

Along with IP address, you must also set the computer name. This is a human friendly name that other users will use every time they want to access your computer on the network. Every person must have a unique name assigned to it. Finally, you can enter a computer description to provide more details about the location or operation of the device.


Computer Network Training


Computer network training is one of the latest side to jump into the competitive IT world. Network is a media for computers to communicate with each other by sending files, instant messages and other information. This is accomplished through a LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide Area Network). Nowadays, many companies use a network of computers to run its operations smoothly. So, the computer network is a good job possible. Basically, there are two main networks, namely Microsoft and Novell.

Special degree and certificate network training programs are available through several agencies, schools and online training. Many schools conduct courses as part of their regular programs and vocation courses. Some of these schools have labs outside the classroom that students can apply in designated times. Online courses allow students to take courses their anytime, anywhere. In addition, you can purchase courses individually or bundled, are on the CD. Each regular training extends from six months to one year.

Each network courses comprising basic strategies that work plans for networking, wiring and types of software installed in computers. Typically, these basic running just a few weeks. Students learn about workstations, servers, roles and different types of networks such as client server and peer to peer.

After the basic program, the training moves gradually towards the next higher parts. In this course, students can learn about individual systems and their differences. Many schools in this phase of the two operating systems, Novell and Microsoft. Students can take one or both. What operating system course usually includes up to 3 months. But some schools focus on one system. Procedures such as putting workstation software, install server software, wiring and finally to make a simple computer case.

Students prepared for the certification exams. Examination has a number of practice tests. Most centers allow students to continue training until they have passed the test.


Spread Categories Computer Networking


For some people, the computer itself could be scary stuff, considering the fact of the complexity of the machine. Talking about computer networks could give heart to such people. However, it is not as scary as it may sound.

Computer Networking could be understood by separating the two words in time. A “computer” as we know is a complex machine that allows us to extract information. “Networking” refers to connect or attach. The computer network would simply mean that two or more computers connected. When we say the word “connected” in this reference means that one computer could be accessed through the other.

Broadly speaking, there are two ways to connect two or more computers. The first is called a wired network and the other is called the wireless network. Both of these are great people to learn and understand. However, in language a player is that it can be said that when two or more computers are connected by wire it is called a wired network. And when they are connected without wires through a wireless router, it is known as a wireless network. As wired networks are limited to the area where the wire web is installed in the same way has a wireless range limitations. The number of machines that are on the network would ensure the speed of the network. More machines in the network would mean slow

The various computer systems could be – Personal Area Network. Local Area Network; Campus Area Network; Metropolitan Area Network; Wide Area Network; Global Network and last but not least internet, intranet or extranet. Names are given to the network on the ground that they have. Such as campus would mean that machines are given limited physical campus are connected through computer networks. This could be a wired or wireless network.

Internet could be understood as a global network system.


Computer Networking Connectivity


USB cable

USB port can power up certain devices and transfer data at the same time. There are four cables inside the USB cable and two of them are used for power and two for data transfer. USB standards use A and B connectors to avoid confusion and relatively connectivity between computers through the USB cable does not provide fast speed. The speed also depends on the quality of the cable, operating systems, protocols, network devices, CPU and other electronic components.

Ethernet Straight & Crossover Cables

The most common method of connection between the LAN computer through an Ethernet cable. Ethernet is a local area network communication standard. The common types of Ethernet cables are straight cables, over cable and roll over cable. Straight cable is used to connect a computer with a hub or switch, cross cable is used to connect two computers directly without hub or switch or cross cable is used to connect two hubs or switches to each other. Roll over cable is used to connect the PC with the router console port.

Bluetooth Personal Area Network (PAN)

Bluetooth Personal Area Network is a technology that is used to create an Ethernet network wireless connectivity between mobile computer. In the Personal Area Network of up to eight computers, mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDA etc can be connected. A notebook with built-in Bluetooth radio can be connected with a desktop computer, which is equipped with an external Bluetooth dongle.

Wireless (Wi-Fi) ad-hoc network

Wireless network communication is possible through the IEEE Wireless 802.11b / g also known as Wi-Fi or wireless Ethernet. Computers with wireless LAN cards can send and receive communication signals to and from the access points. The core components used in wireless LAN are wireless routers, wireless LAN cards and access points, etc. For configuration the desktop computer plug the wireless access point on your computer and follow the instructions.

Fiber Optic Cable

A fiber optic cable is made up of strands of glass fibers, which enables transmission of data at the speed of light. Fiber optics have a large capacity and provide speed in GB. The signals through the fiber are transmitted without needing to be refreshed. They have a greater resistance to electromagnetic signals, near by cables, motors, and noise. Fiber to the home FTTH is becoming a common standard because it provides very high speed connections up to 100 Mbps and higher to the home users.