Computer Networking


Computer networking is a process of sharing data and shared resources between two or more connected computers. The shared resources can be printers, fax modems, hard disk, CD – DVD Rom, database and data files. A computer network can be divided into small or local area network, a network between computers in the construction of office (LAN), medium-sized network (MAN) networking between institutions in the city and Wide network (WAN) A network between computers, one is on site and the other may be thousands of miles away in any other country in the world.

WAN connection is achieved by a network device called “Router”. The Internet is the largest WAN network of the world, millions of computers around the world and connected with each other.

Net is the practice of linking two or more computers or devices with each other. The connection can be wired or wireless. A computer can be categorized in different ways, depending on the geographical region mentioned above.

There are two main types of network client-server and peer to peer. The client server computing, computer plays an important role called server, which records data in the form of websites, docs or spread sheet files, video, database and resources are put.

All other computers in a client / server network are called clients and they get data from the server. In the peer to peer network all the computers play the same role and no computer act as a centralized server. The major companies worldwide client-server network model is the main use.

A network topology defines the structure, design or organizational network. There are different topologies like bus, ring, star, mesh, hybrid etc. The star topology is the most common network topology. In a star topology, all the computers in a network connected by a central device such as a hub or switch. Thus forming such a structure. If the hubs / switch fails to work for any reason then all the connectivity and communication between computers of the network will be stopped.

In a network, a common communication language used by computers and network devices and this language is known as protocols. The most common and popular books on the internet and in the home and other networks is called TCP / IP. TCP / IP is not a single protocol, but it is a suite of several protocols.

AA network can be wired or wireless network and TCP / IP protocols can work in both types of networks. data flow in the network can be divided into seven logical layers called OSI layer model that was developed by Intel and Xerox Corporation and was standardized in ISO.

1. Application layer

2. Promotion track

3. Session layer

4. Transport layer

5. Network layer

6. Data Link layer

a. Media access control sub-layer

b. Logical Link Control sub-layer

7. Physical layer.

A network can be divided into different scale and range and it depends on the requirement of network and geographic location. Computer Network can be divided into Local Area Network, Personal Area Network, Campus Area Network, Wireless Local Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network and Wide Area Network.

There are several methods network connection as HomePNA, Power line communication, Ethernet and WiFi connectivity method.A network can also be categorized into several different types based on the services it provides, such as data centers, network storage area, Value control net value added networks, SOHO networks, wireless networks and network Jungle.